Popular Keywords

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Applied Neurobiology

Brain disease

Cellular Biology

Clinical Neurology

CNS Injury and Stroke

Animal Neurophysiology of Motor Behavior for Mechanistic Understanding of Human Sport Performance: A Future Portrait of the Athletic Brain

Correspondence to Author: Ramses Thivierge, 

Editorial office,Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology,Brussels,Belgium.


Sports performances typically serve as examples of adept motor control. In a similar way to how research on neurological patients has influenced early work in cognitive neuroscience, efforts to recognise the brain strategies supporting such manoeuvres might likewise educate us about prevalent conceptions of behaviour. While research on non-human animal models offers invaluable information on the brain dynamics of skilled motor control that is still difficult to obtain in people, recreation sciences have given these mechanisms remarkably little attention. Similarly, knowledge gained from studying game play may inspire ground-breaking animal neurophysiology investigations, however they have only been partially carried out. Here, we propose that encouraging collaborations between these two seemingly unrelated fields—animal neurophysiology and video game sciences, which may also result in mutual advantages. A special perspective on the computations for motor control, for example, can be gained by recording and altering the recreation from neurons of acting animals. This perspective has undoubtedly unexplored potential for improving athletes’ motor skills. In the current paper, we also provide steps for the reverse translation of recreation sciences discoveries to animal fashions and the assessment of comparability between animal fashions of a specific activity and athletes in order to spark such transdisciplinary discussion. In the article’s concluding section, we propose that some methods created for studying animal neurophysiology should be applied to activity sciences as soon as possible (for example, improved tracking methods) or in the future (for example, novel intelligence stimulation techniques) and should be used to assess and control motor skills. , with ramifications for human performance going well beyond athletics.

Keywords :Neurophysiology , Central anxious gadget

Introduction: misleadingly easy. Such achievements are driven by complex dynamics involving cerebral control and body mechanics. Here, we make the case for a more favourable interaction between game neuroscience and non-human (henceforward, animal or basic) neurophysiology, to provide benefits for both fields, i.e., behavioural effect in activity and cell mechanisms in animal studies, towards a more in-depth understanding of the nature of motor performance [1]. Considering the Central Nervous System (CNS) as a computer unit creating flexible movements, many sporting gestures can be seen as remarkable examples of expert motor control. This makes them extremely relevant for a range of disciplines, including cognitive neuroscience. Unsurprisingly, research on the brain underpinnings of gaming performance has increased interest in biomedicine and human physiology. Traditional physiological research concentrated on processes like tiredness, with the long-held idea that it was a muscular limit. This belief is now somewhat challenged by research suggesting that, in addition to physical tiredness, the nervous system is also worn down. In the past, games were extensively evaluated in biomedicine as interventions that either promoted or harmed health. In the first scenario, games model increased levels of physical activity with the typical intervention goal being the avoidance of non-neural illnesses linked to sedentary lifestyle, whereas the present focus has been on using recreation as a way to market “brain health.” In the second instance, recreational activities (especially contact sports like boxing or American football) have increased risks for stressful CNS accidents, and it is possible to predict the severity of behavioural impairments based just on the intensity of the head effects. Additionally, epidemiological data support the hypothesis that specific athletes, such as soccer players, are more likely to cause positive neurological disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The establishment of activity neuroscience has been aided by the discovery of behavioural and neurological differencesbetween novice and expert athletes as part of a more recent research line that seeks to understand the brain roots of motor performance. The integration of techniques and/ or concepts emerging from neurophysiological research will most likely provide a groundbreaking stimulus towards a mechanistic perception of the neural bases of human performance. This new field broadly leverages upon standards and methodologies of activity psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

On the Definitions of SportWhile the terms “sport” and “physical activity” are sometimes used interchangeably, we define “sport” as “an enterprise involving physical exertion and skill, specifically one regulated through specified standards or traditions in which an individual or team competes against any other or others” [3]. Additionally, physical exercise and recreation at the brain level have already been linked in both human and animal studies; gaming has trailed behind. Additionally, the term “game” serves as a catch-all for a variety of fields connected to quite heterogeneous groups of cognitive and motor skills. In general, two game categories—closed talent sports activities and Open Competencies Sports Activities (OSS)—can be identified. The first category includes these games. sports that commonly involve the alternate and rhythmic repetition of limb movements in environments that are extremely stable and predictable. In contrast, the athlete’s performance in OSS is a part of a dynamic, unpredictable, and externally paced environment. Since most CSSs are dependent on variations of locomotion parameters, they should be viewed as “less cognitive” and more closely related to low-level motor control and circuits, even when a CSS still involves central networks related to, for example, strength management. Different elements, such as skilled object manipulation, motion observation and anticipation, and a coral, tactical plan, are essential to succeed in OSS, on the pinnacle of fine-tuning of locomotion parameters. Accordingly, it might also appear It would seem logical to assume that animal modelling of activities like walking would be simpler than, say, tennis and that distinct insights on the cognitive underpinnings of activity performance may also be obtained. Here, we disallow any sporting events that actively involve animals [4]. Along with traditional sports, competitive video gaming is becoming a more popular form of what is known as digital recreation. In contrast to many real-world sports, eSport competitors typically limit their motions to keyboards, gamepad, joystick, and mouse movements, which makes it easier to conduct the kind of hypothesis testing and task manipulation that are typical of laboratory-based experiments. Importantly, digital truth studies are automatically conducted in both humans and animals, and they can easily be adapted to eSport mannequins that may be harvested for a mechanistic understanding of motor function. It is still debatable whether eSport can be considered a “genuine” form of recreation, however it is important to note that eSport-related activities are about to be included in future Olympics. Independent of the rules set forth by such organisations, eSports may prove to be an essential tool for evaluating the cognitive processes that underlie various aspects of recreational performance, similar to what has been achieved using, for example, flight simulations for naval training/testing. The spatial scaling of the motor effector utilised in digital versus bodily use will be determined by future research. Environments might have an impact on performance as a whole and/or whether scaleinvariant parameters that adhere to the fractal ordering principle arise. Some early symptoms are based on research on mice, where digital reality tasks are associated with partially altered hippocampus dynamics when compared to a real-world project, suggesting that a similar version in brain processing may potentially manifest in people. Research on how well eSports and virtual reality environments may replicate specific aspects of physical sports continues to be active. For example, cycling in the context of CSSs represents a partial merging of these two realms. For instance, industrial buildings allow the use of stationary bikes with the back wheel mounted on motorised rollers whose bidirectional verbal communication Changes to the resistance and the digital landscape are made possible through computer interchange. Although achieving such convergence in the case of OSSs is more difficult, positive results have been obtained by demonstrating that shooting free throws in basketball can be improved when topics are trained in a virtual reality simulator. We direct readers to some recent in-depth analyses in this field for a more thorough evaluation of the state of the eSports digital reality as it relates to sports. It will be exciting to determine neural parameters in the future using a method similar to the one employed in the rodent study previously mentioned, i.e., by examining topics in both contexts to look for workable neurological similarities/differences in the physical versus digital world. [5] Environment. Based on the aforementioned premises on sports-specific traits, a body of study has examined the theory that behavioural and neurological approaches show. differences in activity performance exist not just between athletes and non-athletes, but also between athletes from different sports, naive subjects, professional athletes, and top athletes, the latter of whom are statistical outliers. We discuss some recent research embracing various levels of inquiry in the section that follows, and we tie some of these findings to laboratory-based studies of human motor performance.

References1. Aghajan, Z.M ., et al. “Impaired spatial selectivity and intact phase precession in two-dimensional virtual reality”. Nature neurosci. 18.1(2015):121-128. 2. Boger, H.A., et al. “Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on dopaminergic function and motor behavior during aging”. Genes Brain Behav. 10.2(2011):186-198. 3. Caspersen, C.J ., et al. “Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness:definitions and distinctions for healthrelated research”. Public Health Rep. 100.2(1985):126. 4. Fenno, L ., et al. “The development and application of optogenetics”.Annu Rev Neurosci. 34(2011):389.


Ramses Thivierge. Animal Neurophysiology of Motor Behavior for Mechanistic Understanding of Human Sport Performance: A Future Portrait of the Athletic Brain. Clinics of Neurology 2024.

Journal Info

  • Journal Name: Clinics of Neurology
  • Impact Factor: 2.1**
  • ISSN: 2836-256X
  • DOI: 10.52338/Conr
  • Short Name: CONR
  • Acceptance rate: 55%
  • Volume: 6 (2024)
  • Submission to acceptance: 25 days
  • Acceptance to publication: 10 days


  • Crossref indexed journal
  • Publons indexed journal
  • Pubmed-indexed journal
  • International Scientific Indexing (ISI)-indexed journal
  • Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) index journal
  • Semantic Scholar indexed journal
  • Cosmos indexed journal


  • International Reach
  • Peer Review
  • Rapid Publication
  • Open Access
  • High Visibility