Popular Keywords






Lung Diseases

A Pleural Catheter in an Unusual Location: The gate is small, and the road leading to it is narrow, and only a few people find it

Correspondence to Author: EM Jastelijn  

Department of Radiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Sint Antonius Ziekenhuis, Koekoekslaan, The Netherlands


Hematothorax could be a rare however potential grievous complication following centesis, that is most typically thanks to artery laceration throughout the insertion of the needle.We report a case of a serous membrane tubing insertion into AN venous blood vessel. we tend to describe the anatomic variation of the intercostal vessels and discuss the potential advantage of further imaging throughout centesis.

Introduction: Thoracocentesis could be a common diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. arteria laceration throughout a centesis could be a probably dangerous complication [1,2]. we have a tendency to report a case of a patient United Nations agency bestowed with serous membrane effusion when aortal surgery. when serous membrane punction associated evacuation the serous membrane effusion failed to decrease that was caused by an uncommon location of the serous membrane tubing within the vein. To our data, no reports are created regarding the location of a serous membrane tubing within the vein throughout centesis.

Case presentation
A seventy three year-old male with a chronic type-An aortal dissection underwent supracoronary aorta and cornea replacement with elephant trunk procedure, with associate uncomplicated recovery.Three weeks when surgery, patient bestowed at the hospital room with sharp collapse throughout coughing and shortness of breath. A CAT (CT) scan of the aorta showed right sided pulmonic embolisms and left sided serous membrane effusion however no signs of colligation outpouring of the aorta. decoagulant medical aid was started With ultrasound (US) steerage the correct location for insertion of the needle decided and a diagnostic serous membrane punction was performed. Punction showed harm fluid with a hemoglobin (Hb) level of five, 8 mmol/l. hemoglobin in blood was half dozen, 2 mmol/l. atiny low serous membrane tubing (8 Fr) was placed on suction (-15 cm H2O) within the ninth intercostal house (ICS). inside in some unspecified time in the future, 700 mil of blood was drained and a decline in blood hemoglobin of zero.3 mmol/l was ascertained. the quantity of serous membrane fluid on the chest X-ray failed to amendment and issues raised regarding a full of life trauma focus. a replacement CT scan showed unchanged left sided serous membrane effusion. Further, the serous membrane tubing wasn’t set within the cavity (Figure 1a/1c), however followed a similar flight because the ninth rib, in shut relationship to the intercostal bundle. extra digital subtraction imaging showed its location within the vein (Figure 1b). Anticoagulant medical aid was briefly interrupted and also the drain was placed on water seal. succeeding day, the serous membrane tubing was removed within the surgery and an oversized bore (28 Fr) serous membrane tubing was placed in left fifth intercostal house (ICS). It made virtually two liters of harm fluid. The patient remained hemodynamically stable and also the decoagulant medical aid was restarted. Patient recovered quickly and was discharged when four days. His any recovery was quiet.

We delineated the rare complication of puncturing AN vena throughout centesis National pointers recommendation to insert the needle higher than the superior facet of the rib within the ICS to Although, the neurovascular bundle is lying comparatively protected by the superimposed rib, insertion of the needle over the superior border of the inferior rib isn’t continually reliable, because of patient habitus or posture or inaccurate insertion of the needle that might lead to vessel laceration. US steering with color Doppler permits the doc to work out a additional correct needle insertion and therefore reduces the incidence of a complication and will increase effectualness [4,5]. Imaging of intercostal vessels with United States isn’t incorporated in current pectoral pointers. Therefore, information regarding the anatomic variations of the intercostal neurovascular branch remains vital. The intercostal vessel begins its course exposed posteriorly, inside the center of the ICS, and more and more moves towards the protection of the superimposed rib as it travels laterally. The vessels decreases in size from posterior to anterior and once the middle axillary line it will increase once more to the parasternal region [6]. Interventions conducted inside six cm lateral to the pointed method ar probably risky given the hyperbolic risk of non shielding of the artery by the superior rib. what is more, the chance is also hyperbolic once accessing higher rib areas [7]. though the higher than delineated course is reliable there ar individual outliers inside patients [5,8]. particularly within the older patients the torsion of the intercostal vessels will increase and also the quantity of safe house decreases [7,9].

to our information we have a tendency to ar the 1st to report the rare complication of puncturing AN intercostal vein throughout centesis which might be reduced by the use of United States. we have a tendency to emphasize that just in case either a vessel laceration or a hematothorax is suspected, further imaging is required.

1. Yacovone ML, Kartan R, Bautista M. Intercostal artery laceration following thoracentesis. Respir Care. 2010; 55: 1495-1498. 2. Kanai M, Sekiguchi H. Avoiding vessel laceration in thoracentesis: a role of vascular ultrasound with color Doppler. Chest. 2015; 147; 5-73. Havelock T, Teoh R, Laws D, Gleeson F. BTS Pleural Disease Guideline Group. Pleural procedures and thoracic ultrasound: British Thoracic Society Pleural Disease Guideline 2010. Thorax. 2010; 65: 61-76. 4. Salamonsen M, Dobeli K, McGrath D, Readdy C, Ware R, Steinke K, et al. Physician-performed ultrasound can accurately screen for a vulnerable intercostal artery prior to chest drainage procedures. Respirology. 2013; 18: 942-947. 5. Salamonsen M, Ellis S, Paul E, Steinke K, Fielding D. Thoracic ultrasound demonstrates variable location of the intercostal artery. Respiration. 2012; 83: 323-329. 6. Da Rocha RP, Vengjer A, Blanco A, de Carvalho PT, Mongon ML, Fernandes GJ. Size of the collateral intercostal artery in adults: anatomical considerations in relation to thoracocentesis and thoracoscopy. SurgRadiol Anat. 2002; 24: 23-26. 7. Helm EJ, Rahman NM, Talakoub O, Fox DL, Gleeson FV. Course and variation of the intercostal artery by CT scan. Chest. 2013; 143: 634- 639. 8. Wraight WM, Tweedie DJ, Parkin IG. Neurovascular anatomy and variation in the fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal spaces in the mid- axillary line: a cadaveric study in respect of chest drain insertion. Clin Anat. 2005; 18: 346-349. 9. Yoneyama H, Arahata M, Temaru R, Ishizaka S, Minami S. Evaluation of the risk of intercostal artery laceration during thoracentesis in elderly patients by using 3D-CT angiography. Intern Med. 2010; 49: 289-292.


EM Jastelijn. A Pleural Catheter in an Unusual Location: The gate is small, and the road leading to it is narrow, and only a few people find it. Journal of Respiratory Medicine and Research 2024.

Journal Info

  • Journal Name: Journal of Respiratory Medicine and Research
  • Impact Factor: 1.8
  • ISSN: 2831-3240
  • DOI: 10.52338/jrmr
  • Short Name: JRMR
  • Acceptance rate: 55%
  • Volume: (2024)
  • Submission to acceptance: 25 days
  • Acceptance to publication: 10 days
  • Crossref indexed journal
  • Publons indexed journal
  • Pubmed-indexed journal
  • International Scientific Indexing (ISI)-indexed journal
  • Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) index journal
  • Semantic Scholar indexed journal
  • Cosmos indexed journal


  • International Reach
  • Peer Review
  • Rapid Publication
  • Open Access
  • High Visibility