Popular Keywords

Bronchitis

Carcinoma

Emphysema

Pulmonology

Epidemiology

Lung Diseases

Nutritional Status in Bronchiectasis Patients Before and After Pulmonary Rehabilitation: A Retrospective Study

Correspondence to Author: Javid Broud  

Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Llandough, Penlan Rd, Cardiff, UK, Email: javidbroud@wales.nhs

Abstract:

Nutritional depletion is understood to be a determinant of outcome in chronic respiratory illness however there’s a scarcity of proof on nutritionary intervention in bronchiectasis. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review body mass index (BMI) and body composition of patients with bronchiectasis pre and post pneumonic rehabilitation (PR). The age, sex, smoking pack year history and compelled breath volume in one second as p.c expected (FEV1 %) of patients enrolling in PR over a 5 year amount were retrospectively reviewed. BMI and fat free mass index (FFMI), were recorded at the beginning and finish of PR. The frequency and temporal order of fare input received inside the PR course was recorded. forty eight (18 male) patients completed PR with a mean (SD) age of sixty nine.8 (10.0) years. The mean BMI (SD) was twenty six.6 kg/m2 (6.2) and mean (SD) FFMI kg/m2 was seventeen.6 (2.3). At the beginning of PR four patients were scraggy, sixteen traditional BMI, sixteen overweight and twelve rotund. At the completion of PR there was no statistically important modification in BMI or FFMI. This study doesn’t show improvement in BMI or FFMI throughout PR however illustrates a challenge in partaking patients early in PR which long term follow up might show gains in BMI and FFMI. The challenge of fare input is additionally the ranges of BMI gift (14.5-41.5 kg/m2) during this cluster of patients and detective work hidden loss of FFMI and maintaining any intervention for long enough to sight a modification in body composition.

Introduction: Nutritional depletion as assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI) may be a determinant of medical aid and death risk in chronic finish stage respiratory illness [1] and an occasional BMI may be a marker of poor outcomes in COPD [2]. Bronchiectasis (BE) may be a chronic respiratory organ illness outlined by permanent dilatation and destruction of bronchi and bronchioles [3] whose pathology has been coupled to a chronic inflammatory state [4]. BE has been related to general co morbidities like multiplied blood vessel stiffness and better prevalence of pathology [5] at the side of AN adverse impact on muscle endurance, exercise capability, fatigue and health standing [6]. Onen et al. [7] found that BMI at the side of Medical analysis Council symptom scale had additional important effects on mortality in patients with bronchiectasis than different parameters like drive and picture taking extent of illness. current of air et al 2012 [5] found mean albumen and aldohexose were reduced in bronchiectatic patients compared to matched controls suggesting suboptimal nutrition, with solely 2 hundredth of bronchiectatic patients having a healthy BMI compared to five hundredth within the management cluster. In distinction to fibrocystic disease of the pancreas (CF) wherever nutrition is one of the key management problems, there’s a dearth of proof of organic process intervention within the setting of non CF bronchiectasis. Recent British body part Society pointers [8] mention multidisciplinary (MDT) input for patients with bronchiectasis seen in secondary care however don’t stipulate organic process assessment and intervention. Referral to pulmonic rehabilitation (PR) is usually recommended by the rules as Grade B proof for patients World Health Organization have dyspnea touching their activities of daily living. The MDT nature of PR could gift a perfect chance for organic process assessment and intervention. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review BMI and body composition of patients with BE attending PR, and to assess changes in body composition following PR.

Materials and Ways
The native PR course consists of twenty sessions, spanning seven weeks, with 3 sessions per week, each 2.25 hours long. The course is travel by a multidisciplinary team as well as dietician, physical {therapist|therapist|healer} and activity therapist. dietetical input is provided to the cluster as a part of the tutorial side of the programme, involving two cluster education sessions provided on the point of the beginning of the PR programme. These education sessions cowl a good vary of topics as well as organic process support for starving patients, managing dyspnea at mealtimes, minimising constipation, xerotes and substance deficiencies in addition to weight management. every patient is additionally offered personal recommendation on a one to one basis PRN. On completion of PR patients ar referred onto community dietetical services if relevant for on-going support. The PR referral proforma of patients known as having bronchiectasis (confirmed by High Resolution CAT of the chest) from 2007 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Age, smoking standing, BMI, fat free mass (FFM) (Tanita BC418-MA), handle strength, (TAKEI 5401 dynamometer), spirometry (Vitalograph, UK) with forced breath volume in 1 second as p.c expected (FEV1 %) determined per European metabolism Society pointers [9] and pre and post results for St Georges metabolism form [10] andincremental shuttle walk check (ISWT) [11] were recorded. Pre PR assessment of patients occurred at intervals the primary two sessions of the relevant programme with post PR assessment occurring within the final two sessions. Patients were deemed to possess completed PR if they attended quite fourteen of the twenty sessions. whether or not a patient declined dietetical input was recorded and therefore the variety of dietetical reviews the patients received was recorded and therefore the temporal arrangement of dietetical review at intervals the PR programme (i.e. that session of the 20) was additionally recorded. This analysis concerned retrospective analysis of existing knowledge and commonplace care had been given to any or all patients. There was no further intervention performed and so moral approval wasn’t sought-after as per National analysis Ethics Service steerage. Data analysis was performed with the applied mathematics Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA) computer code version 16.0. Analyses enclosed freelance and paired t checks and therefore the chi- square test was used for nominal knowledge comparisons. the importance level was set .

Results and Discussion
63 (24 male) patients with BE commenced PR over this five year amount. Of the sixty three patients WHO commenced forty eight completed the PR course. 5 patients didn’t complete thanks to metabolic process exacerbations and 10 patients had poor attending and attended but fourteen of the sessions. Of the forty eight patients WHO completed PR there have been thirty females and eighteen males. The mean (SD) age was sixty nine.8 (10.0) years and also the median smoking pack year history was zero with a spread 0-30 years. The mean (SD) FEV1% was fifty four.7 % (24.7%). Table 1illustrates the results of PR within the patients finishing the course.At the completion of PR there was no statistically significantchange within the proportions of patients categorized as low BMI,Data ar conferred as mean (SD) unless otherwise declared BMI Body Mass Index, FFMI Fat Free Mass Index, SGRQ St Georges metabolic process form, ISWT progressive Shuttle Walk check traditional BMI, overweight or fat. 5 patients had low BMI, 16 normal, fifteen overweight and twelve were fat at the completion of PR. Of the forty eight patients WHO completed PR thirty six had a FFMI calculated. correct FFMI measuring wasn’t potential within the remaining twelve patients thanks to pacemakers and altered fluid balance standing. of those thirty six patients thirty one patients had traditional FFMI for his or her age [13]. The remaining 5 patients (three male) had a coffee FFMI at the beginning of PR. At the completion of PR there was no statistically vital modification within the proportions of patients categorized as low FFMI and traditional FFMI. At the beginning of PR 2 patients, both male, had hidden low FFMI (i.e. traditional BMI however low FFMI). 5 patients had a coffee BMI and low FFMI at commencement of PR. Of the forty eight patients finishing PR fifteen (9 female) declined to see the specializer and thirty three consented to fare input concerning individualized recommendation. There was no statistically vital distinction in age, sex, FEV1% expected, FFMI or BMI at begin with {those WHO|those that|people who} refused fare input and people who received fare input. of these WHO saw the specializer median contact was at session eleven of twenty (range session 2-19). The median range of fare sessions was one (range 1-4). All patients with a coffee BMI in agreement to input from the specializer. There was no vital modification in BMI and FFMI pre and post PR in {those WHO|those that|people who} refused fare input and people who had individualized fare input (p>0.05). There is a scarcity of proof of biological process intervention within the setting of non CF BE. Recent British pectoral Society pointers [8] mention multidisciplinary (MDT) input for patients with bronchiectasis seen in secondary care however don’t stipulate biological process assessment and intervention. PR improved patients’ ISWT distance and quality of life, as noted in several previous PR studies. However, while this study willn’t show associate improvement in BMI or FFMI throughout PR it does illustrate that there remains a challenge in partaking patients early in PR which long run follow up could show gains in BMI and FFMI and steps to optimise biological process standing could result in enhancements in morbidity and mortality. In testing this hypothesis Weekes et al [14] assessed dietary counsel specifically that specialize in food fortification in stable COPD patients. The intervention part lasted half-dozen months with an additional half-dozen month follow up amount. Intervention patients received seven contacts with associate old specializer and results showed vital enhancements in consumption of energy and supermolecule additionally to vital and sustained weight gain.

Whilst literature basis is poor ought to dietitians be targeting sure groups? Cano et al. [15] checked out thirty-nine BE patients on LTOT and/or home mechanical ventilation. The BE patients during this study showed the very best you look after depleted FFM of all chronic respiratory organ diseases ascertained (COPD, restrictive disorders, mixed metabolic process failure). The challenge of fare input is additionally the ranges of BMI gift (14.5-41.5 kg/m2) during this cluster of patients and detective work patients with hidden loss of FFMI and maintaining any intervention for long enough to discover a modification in body composition. Is fare input among PR serving to to minimise rate of FFM decline instead of North American nation expecting it to extend FFM? To facilitate this longer term aim of influencing modification in body composition biological process aspects ar probably to would like to be incorporated into individual management plans among a multidisciplinary team setting. Body composition assessment mistreatment bioelectrical resistance has been valid in COPD [16] and has verified to be a useful gizmo in distinguishing low FFM, as well as hidden low FFM associate freelance predictor of mortality in COPD. This retrospective study known many patients WHO had hidden loss of FFM (i.e. low FFMI however traditional BMI) and thus assessment of body composition in patients with BE would be useful in distinguishing those with a doubtless larger risk of decay. Cano et al [15] recommend patients with BE gift with higher inflammatory activity as compared with different respiratory organ diseases. so as a consequence it should be hypothesised that patients with BE could also be a lot of immune to enhancements in BMI or FFM.

Conclusion
Whilst this study doesn’t show AN improvement in BMI or FFMI throughout PR it illustrates that there remains a challenge in partaking patients early in PR which long term follow up might show gains in BMI and FFMI and steps to optimise organic process standing might result in enhancements in morbidity and mortality. The challenge of dietetical input is additionally the ranges of BMI gift (14.5-41.5 kg/ m2) during this cluster of patients and detection patients with hidden loss of FFMI and maintaining any intervention for long enough to sight a amendment in body composition. To facilitate this long term aim of influencing amendment in body composition organic process aspects ar probably to want to be incorporated into individual management plans inside a multidisciplinary team setting. BE could be a terribly heterogeneous condition secondary to variety of aetiologies and inside this study we’ve not classified patients additional into precise aetiologies wherever legendary. Patients received dietetical input at completely different|completely different} time points inside the program and therefore follow from the impact of dietetical intervention occurred at different times in several patients. as an example it’s going to be impractical to expect to envision proof in amendment in organic process standing if a patient was seen on session nineteen for the primary time of a twenty session course. In this retrospective study though variety of patients willing to dietetical input and later variety of dietetical sessions was recorded the clinical reason for dietetical involvement wasn’t recorded (e.g. weight gain or weight loss recommendation, diabetic management, GI disorders like IBS management). thus it’s inconceivable to mention whether or not all patients agreeing to dietetical input had weight/FFM as their main goal.

References
1. Cano NJ, Pichard C, Roth H, Court-Fortuné I, Cynober L, Gérard- Boncompain M, et al. C-reactive protein and body mass index predict outcome in end-stage respiratory failure. Chest. 2004; 126: 540-546. 2. Celli BR, Cote CG, Marin JM, Casanova C, Montes de Oca M, Mendez RA, et al. The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 1005-1012. 3. Shoemark A, Ozerovitch L, Wilson R. Aetiology in adult patients with bronchiectasis. Respir Med. 2007; 101: 1163-1170. 4. Ip M, Lauder IJ, Wong WY, Lam WK, So SY. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting pulmonary function in bronchiectasis. Respiration. 1993; 60: 45-50. 5. Gale NS, Bolton CE, Duckers JM, Enright S, Cockcroft JR, Shale DJ. Systemic comorbidities in bronchiectasis. Chron Respir Dis. 2012; 9: 231-238. 6. Ozalp O, Inal-Ince D, Calik E, Vardar-Yagli N, Saglam M, Savci S, et al. Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2012; 7: 3. 7. Onen ZP, Gulbay BE, Sen E, Yildiz OA, Saryal S, Acican T, et al. Analysis of the factors related to mortality in patients with bronchiectasis. Respir Med. 2007; 101: 1390-1397. 8. Pasteur MC, Bilton D. Hill AT; British Thoracic Society Bronchiectasis non-CF Guideline Group. British Thoracic Society guideline for non-CF bronchiectasis. Thorax. 2010; 65 Suppl 1: i1-58. 9. Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, Burgos F, Casaburi R, Coates A, et al. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J. 2005; 26: 319-338. 10. Jones PW, Quirk FH, Baveystock CM. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. Respir Med. 1991; 85 Suppl B: 25-31. 11. Singh SJ, Morgan MD, Scott S, Walters D, Hardman AE. Development of a shuttle walking test of disability in patients with chronic airways obstruction. Thorax. 1992; 47: 1019-1024. 12. Stratton RJ, Hackston A, Longmore D, Dixon R, Price S, Stroud M, et al. Malnutrition in hospital outpatients and inpatients: prevalence, concurrent validity and ease of use of the ‘malnutrition universal screening tool’ (‘MUST’) for adults. Br J Nutr. 2004; 92: 799-808. 13. Schutz Y, Kyle UU, Pichard C. Fat-free mass index and fat mass index percentiles in Caucasians aged 18-98 y. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002; 26: 953-960. 14. Weekes CE, Emery PW, Elia M. Dietary counselling and food fortification in stable COPD: a randomised trial. Thorax. 2009; 64: 326-331. 15. Cano NJ, Roth H, Court-Ortuné I, Cynober L, Gérard-Boncompain M, Cuvelier A, et al. Nutritional depletion in patients on long-term oxygen therapy and/or home mechanical ventilation. Eur Respir J. 2002; 20: 30-37. 16. Steiner MC, Barton RL, Singh SJ, Morgan MD. Bedside methods versus dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurement in COPD. Eur Respir J. 2002; 19: 626-631.

Citation:

Javid Broud. Nutritional Status in Bronchiectasis Patients Before and After Pulmonary Rehabilitation: A Retrospective Study. Journal of Respiratory Medicine and Research 2024.

Journal Info

  • Journal Name: Journal of Respiratory Medicine and Research
  • Impact Factor: 1.8
  • ISSN: 2831-3240
  • DOI: 10.52338/jrmr
  • Short Name: JRMR
  • Acceptance rate: 55%
  • Volume: (2024)
  • Submission to acceptance: 25 days
  • Acceptance to publication: 10 days

INDEXING

  • Crossref indexed journal
  • Publons indexed journal
  • Pubmed-indexed journal
  • International Scientific Indexing (ISI)-indexed journal
  • Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) index journal
  • Semantic Scholar indexed journal
  • Cosmos indexed journal

OUR PUBLICATION BENEFITS

  • International Reach
  • Peer Review
  • Rapid Publication
  • Open Access
  • High Visibility