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The Role of PVI in the Evolution of AF Ablation Strategies

Correspondence to Author: Jose Ramon Ponce, 

Doctor in Psychoanalysis, University of Humanistic Psychoanalysis, Brazil.


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is that the commonest clinical cardiopathy and its prevalence within the u. s. is predicted to achieve 6-12 million by the year 2050 [1]. many decades past, it absolutely was believed that AF was caused by a group of random and unmethodical activations within the atria. Moe et al. [2,3] in 1964 initial projected his ‘multiple wave hypothesis’ in line with that, new waves kind when the initial wave break leading to the multiple wavelet fibrillation. These waves area unit short lived and might either disintegrate when colliding with another wavelet or a non-conducting boundary, or fractionate in to multiple girl wavelets. The second hypothesis advises by Lewis in 1925 [4] and then by Gurvich in 1975 was the ‘mother rotor hypothesis,’ during which AF is maintained by one speedy re-entrant circuit of excitation [5]. This theory has been studied intimately by Jalife’s cluster in massive animal models and simulations, because the predominant mechanism for AF [6,7]. These 2 projected mechanisms are shown to look in isolation and conjointly at the same time, leading to a far a lot of advanced pattern of AF [8]. In a majority of the AF cases, antiarrhythmic drug medication don’t seem to be effective and thus tubing ablation has become route of medical care in sure subgroups of patients. many studies have incontestible numerous multiple ablation methods with restricted efficaciousness. vena isolation (PVI) has well-tried to be efficacious for attack AF, however its efficaciousness in persistent AF remains low [11]. In 1998, Haïssaguerre et al. [12] in his seminal paper showed that pulmonic veins (PV) triggers area unit crucial for the initiation of AF and PVI will suppress incidence of AF. during this study, ninety four of the position triggers originated from PVs resulted in AF. However, future follow up when printed online: 02 Gregorian calendar month 2017 ablation, showed higher return rates of AF particularly in patients with persistent AF successfully rates as low as half-hour within the 3-5 year follow up [15,16]. These meager successes have shifted the main focus on elucidating the mechanisms during which AF happens and perpetuates despite PVI and the way operators will target chamber substrates for a triple-crown ablation. Nademanee et al. [17] in 2004, introduced the conception of ablating advanced fractionated chamber electrograms (CFAE). This approach renovated sinus rhythm in ninety fifth of the cases at twelve months follow up. However, the success rate was restricted on an outsized scale because of the complexness of mapping fractionated electrograms which can be extremely operator dependent and also the results weren’t consistent [18]. In 2012, Narayan et al. [19] introduced clinically a replacement technique to spot and ablate AF supplys that were thought to be the source of move activity within the heart that caused AF. Haïssaguerre et al. [20] printed similar leads to 2014. As numerous and combos of ablation methods augmented success rates, activity exclusively PVI for AF ablation has remained a subject of dialogue. Recent multicentre randomised study (STAR AF II) [21] showed that PVI alone is comfortable in AF ablation which further lines could decrease future success. However, peri-procedural AF termination was low within the cluster wherever solely PVI was performed. Recently, Seitz et al. [22] showed there was augmented effectiveness of AF ablation by targeting electrogram spatio-temporal dispersion sites and compared to the validation set during which patients underwent typical PVI for attack AF and PVI+additional line and fractionated electrogram ablation for persistent AF: eighteen month follow up showed augmented success rate in these patients as compared to the validation set (95% vs 63%). These results incontestible that spatiotemporal dispersion of electrograms is that the main supply of AF drivers which a patient specific ablation strategy targeting dispersion solely are often used. This leaves the pulmonic veins intact and so decreasing the potential complications from PVI like PV pathology. Jadidi et al. [23] confirmed this approach of spatio-temporal dispersion ablation in their recently printed article. Multiple studies showed that vena triggers don’t seem to be the sole mechanisms accountable for AF. PVI alone isn’t enough in these patients and several other studies have shown improved outcome with further substrate ablation like ablating neural structure plexi [24], ligament of Marshall ablation [25], CFAE [17], focal impulse or rotor modulation (FIRM) [19], dominant frequency ablation [26], and a lot of recently ‘Substrate Ablation radio-controlled by High Density Mapping in cardiac arrhythmia (SUBSTRATE HD)’ [22]. there’s AN evolution of latest ablation methods as we have a tendency to any perceive the mechanisms of the AF initiation and protraction. These new approaches of ablation demonstrate superiority of substrate based mostly ablation over PVI, particularly in patients with persistent AF. although the results area unit encouraging, a lot of randomised studies area unit required to validate these recent developments within the ablation field.


Jose Ramon Ponce. The Role of PVI in the Evolution of AF Ablation Strategies. Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases 2022.

Journal Info

  • Journal Name: Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Impact Factor: 2.08*
  • ISSN: 2831-3437
  • DOI: 10.52338/Jocd
  • Short Name: Jocd
  • Acceptance rate: 55%
  • Volume: 6 (2024)
  • Submission to acceptance: 25 days
  • Acceptance to publication: 10 days


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