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The UHS is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

Correspondence to Author: Sridhar Reddy M, 

Department of General Surgery, India.


Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. In an urban population of volunteers and non-athletes, we looked at the factors that were associated with atherosclerosis and MetS diagnosis. The goal was to identify risk factors for atherosclerosis and MetS in Uberlândia’s urban adult population.
Methods: A study involving 101 Uberlândia Heart Study volunteers (50.49 percent men; mean age 56.518, range 19-74 years) (UHS). The volunteers were subjected to a physical examination as well as laboratory tests. Results: The study sample consisted of 48 women (W) and 52 men (M), with 48.5 percent being women, 40.2 percent having elevated blood pressure [BP (systolic BP 130 mmHg or diastolic BP 85 mmHg), and 39.3 percent being obese,61.8 percent were overweight, 32 percent had hypertriglyceridemia, 33.2 percent had low HDL-C and LDL-C, 40.2 percent had high total cholesterol, 33.2 percent had high non-HDL-C, 22.7 percent had mixed dyslipidemia, 20.2 percent had impaired fasting glucose, and 41.1 percent had metabolic syndrome.
Conclusion: The UHS study found that both sexes had a high prevalence of MetS and risk factors.


Prevalence, Risk factors, Abdominal obesity, Lipids, Metabolic syndrome


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) arising from arterial sclerosis could be a leading reason behind death and morbidity worldwide, and therefore the underlying pathologic process involves associate unbalanced supermolecule metabolism and a maladaptive reaction entailing a chronic inflammation of the blood vessel wall1. Metabolic syndrome is outlined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, organic chemistry, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly will increase the chance of upset, kind a pair of diabetes, and all-cause mortality [1,2]. particularly, the visceral fat (VF) compartment could also be a unhealthful fat depot. MetS is said to any comorbidities as well as, impaired fast aldohexose, diabetes, internal secretion resistance, cardiovascular disease, lipids disorders, inflammation and cancer [3,4]. within the NHANES study one- fifth of the adult population of the USA has high cardio metabolic risk, with the prevalence of MetS being calculable at twenty two.9% [2-5]. A gap within the South yankee literature is said to what style of comorbidities associated with MetS is in adults in each sexes. The aim of this study was to verify the range of risk factors for arterial sclerosis and MetS in UHS.

Materials and ways

Study sample The study was approved by the institutional review boards of the Federal University of Uberlândia. All subjects provided written consent. A study with one zero one volunteers of every which way selected adult urban population and not jock (50.49% men; mean age fifty six.5±18, vary 19-74 years) drawn from the Uberlândia Heart Study underwent physical assessment, laboratory tests, and additionally failed to create the employment of tobacco and medicines that would influence pressure (BP), supermolecule profile and blood sugar. Risk issue and covariate assessment The Risk factors (RF) and covariates were measured at the primary visit. BMI, outlined as weight (in kilograms) divided by the sq. of height (in meters), was measured at every index examination. MetS was outlined consistent with the National steroid alcohol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III. people were classified as having MetS if they’d 3 or additional of the followings from UHS Visit 1: elevated BP (systolic BP =130 mmHg or pulsation BP 8=5 mmHg); elevated TG (=150 mg/ dL); low HDL-C (men =94 cm, women =80 cm).Diabetes was outlined as a abstinence plasma aldohexose level =126 mg/dL. Impaired abstinence aldohexose was outlined as a abstinence plasma aldohexose level of one hundred to a hundred twenty five mg/dL among those not treated for polygenic disorder. Total cholesterin, HDL-C, TG and aldohexose were determined by protein strategies when long abstinence. Certified technicians used a random-zero pressure gauge to live two force per unit area (BP) readings within the sitting position when five minutes of rest and therefore the mean BP of the two measurements was recorded. Liver enzymes ?-Glutamyltransferase (GGT-normal values nine to thirty six U/L (W) and 12-64 U/L (M)], amino acid transferase (ALT-normal up to fifty five U /L), and Aspartate transferase (AST-normal up to thirty four U/L) were determined. Statistical analysis The RF was ordinarily distributed. Sex-specific age-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients were wont to assess straightforward correlations between RF and MetS. Multivariable linear and supply regression was wont to assess the importance of covariate-adjusted cross-sectional relations between continuous and divided RF and MetS. A p-value, 0.05 was thought of to point significance. SPSS Version twenty one code (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used. Results The sample population was composed of one hundred and one volunteers. Participant characteristics The mean age of the study sample was forty eight W and fifty two M, and 48.5% were girls. In Table one was reportable the outline of the health variables and also the distribution by age teams. Prevalence of major CVD risk factors The overall prevalence of elevated pressure was forty.2% (systolic BP =130 mmHg or pulse BP =85 mmHg), 39.3% had rotund, 61.8 % abdominal blubber, thirty two nothing hypertriglyceridemia, 33.2% low HDL-C and high LDL-C, 40.2 % high total sterol, 33.2% high nonHDL-C, 22.7 made combined dyslipidemia, 20.2% impaired fast aldohexose and forty one.1% had MetS.


In the UHS, 40.2% was hypertensive, 39,3% had rotund, 61.8 % abdominal blubber, thirty two nothing hypertriglyceridemia, 33.2% low HDL-C and high LDL-C, 40.2 % high total sterol, 33.2% high nonHDL-C, 22.7% mixed dyslipidemia, 20.2% impaired fast aldohexose and forty one.1% had MetS. The LATINMETS Brazil study reportable the MetS prevalence of four.5% in health care workers6, and also the LATINMETS Columbia study known Associate in Nursing MS prevalence of seventeen.5% [6,7]. In study of latinos: blubber was rates were highest among American participants (for men, 40.9% and 34.7%; for women); symptom prevalence was highest among Central yank men (54.9%) and American girls (41.0%). cardiovascular disease was directly related to CVD in each sexes as were symptom and blubber in girls and polygenic disorder in men). In stroke the associations were positive with cardiovascular disease in each sexes, polygenic disorder in men, and smoking in girls [7]. The (CARMELA) study verified a larger prevalence of blubber and polygenic disorder compared with South America [8]. In INTERHEART Study, was ascertained one sturdy association of CVD with coronary syndromes. Lee et al. delineated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the conventional weight and overweight participants was eight.3% and 29.9% severally. MONO prevalence was higher among males, Indians, and older participants and reciprocally related to sleep period [15]. One doable clarification is also as a result of blubber was the foremost common metabolic risk issue found among participants and posture blubber, hyperinsulinemia, aldohexose intolerance, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease which might increase the chance of developing MetS [16]. in an exceedingly study from Korean Peninsula the authors relates to MetS with specific gender associations and with lower socioeconomic standing and psychological factors [17]. Suliga et al. valuate the chance and frequency of incidence of metabolic syndrome and every of its parts among three,172 people aged 37-66 with traditional weight. MetS was diagnosed in seventeen.27% of people with traditional weight. a rise within the risk of incidence of MetS in females was ascertained among the second (OR=2.22) and also the third (OR=3.97; ninety fifth CI: two.97-5.36) tertiles of traditional BMI values. In males, a considerably higher risk of incidence of MetS was noted solely within the highest BMI tertile (OR=2.16) [18]. In a study within the rural areas of China, the authors examined 5919 hypertensive adults (2892 men and 3027 women) aged thirty five years or older. hypertensive adults with the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) makeup had considerably higher prevalence’s of all cardiometabolic risk factors than those while not the HTGW makeup. This study over that the HTGW makeup was completely related to metabolic abnormal ities in hypertensive adults. In Korean adolescents, about fifty.1% and 33.1% of adolescents had a minimum of one MetS diagnostic element in line with the various criteria [21]. Maiello et al. screened 1257 biological time girls. MetS was assessed on 834 girls (66.4%). Prevalence of every element was: cardiovascular disease (91.9%), central blubber ninety.9%), low HDL-C (73.3%), high glyceride levels (51.3%), aldohexose levels more than one hundred ten mg/dl or polygenic disorder (48.5%). Huang and colleagues investigate the prevalence of MetS in 259 skilled automobile drivers. The bus drivers and taxi drivers had considerably higher prevalence rates of MS than the nonoperating workers (17.5%/13.1% vs 3.3%). skilled automobile drivers have a better prevalence rate of MS than non- operative workers [23]. in an exceedingly study in Nigerian, general cardiovascular disease was found in seventy eight.45%, abdominal fat was in thirty eight.79% subjects and thirty seven.93% had sort two DM [24]. In older Japanese-Brazilians the MetS prevalence ranged from fifty nine.9% to 65.8% in line with the various definitions. The prevalence of altered MetS parts was as follows: blood pressure eighty two, fast glycaemia sixty five.8%, triglycerides forty three.4%, and HDL-C levels thirty six.9%. The MetS and risk factors for induration of the arteries is also related to a rise within the accumulation of visceral and perirenal fat deposits during this population [26-28]. The high prevalence of MetS and risk factors for induration of the arteries is also related to a rise within the accumulation of visceral and perirenal fat deposits during this population [26-28]. in an exceedingly recent study in South American nation, the prevalence of MetS was sixty six.0% in girls and forty seven.1% in men. The MetS is high among older adults. Abdominal blubber followed by elevated pressure was the metabolic syndrome parts additional prevailing and related to internal secretion resistance among older Ecuadorians. Strengths and Limitations There were obtained reliable information associated with alcohol consumption and diet. Future studies ought to be conducted among populations of various occupations with a additional representative ethnic and gender distribution at the national level, and longitudinal studies ought to even be conducted to ascertain the causative relationship between the metabolic syndrome and its risk factors.


The UHS study reportable a high prevalence of MetS and risk factors in each sexes.


Sridhar Reddy M. The UHS is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases 2022.

Journal Info

  • Journal Name: Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Impact Factor: 2.08*
  • ISSN: 2831-3437
  • DOI: 10.52338/Jocd
  • Short Name: Jocd
  • Acceptance rate: 55%
  • Volume: 6 (2024)
  • Submission to acceptance: 25 days
  • Acceptance to publication: 10 days


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