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Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Vascular Leukoencephalus Loosening-Induced Cognitive Impairment

Correspondence to Author: Yifeng Du, 

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China,


Aim: Early clinical diagnosis and prevention of Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) are difficult because the diagnosis and classification of VCI are still based on clinical manifestations and neuropsychological assessments. Our goal was to look into Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) of cognitive impairment brought on by loosening of the vascular leukoencephalus.

Methods: We looked at the connection between brain white matter microstructural changes and cognitive impairment in patients with cognitive impairment using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) and neuropsychological testing. All 60 leukoaraiosis patients underwent systematic analysis.e

ConclusionClinical management and concepts for early detection, early prevention, and early therapy are based on the link between alterations in white matter microstructure and cognitive function.

Abbreviations:Vascular Cognitive Impairment; Non-dementia; VCIND Vascular Dementia, Anisotropy Fraction, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, DTI: Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Vascular Cognitive Impairment, and VaD: Vascular Dementia.

Keywords :Leukoaraiosis; Alzheimer’s disease; Dementia

Introduction: According to a recent article in The Daily Telegraph, heart disease claimed 66,000 lives in Britain each year, while more than 70,000 people died from dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. In the UK, dementia first surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death [1]. Cerebrovascular dementia is becoming more common as the world’s population ages faster, which has a significant impact on how well patients can integrate into society. It is a significant negative factor that hinders the full recovery from cerebrovascular disease. Cognitive impairment brought on by or connected to vascular causes is known as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). From mild cognitive impairment to dementia, VCI is a sort of condition [2]. Like Alzheimer’s disease, growing older is a significant factor. dementia or VCI risk factor. Additional blood vessel-related risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing heart issues, stroke, and other illnesses. Vascular Dementia (VaD) and Non-dementia Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCIND) are two crucial stages of VCI [3]. Following Alzheimer’s disease and VCI, vascular dementia is the second most prevalent form of dementia in older persons and is brought on by damage to the cerebral blood vessels. Within five years, 50% of patients with VCIND in the early stage will develop dementia [4].a risk factor for VCI or dementia. Heart problems, stroke, and other disorders may become more likely to occur if other blood vessel-related risk factors are present. Two significant stages of VCI are vascular dementia (VaD) and nondementia vascular cognitive impairment (VCIND) [3]. Vascular dementia, which is caused by damage to the cerebral blood vessels, is the second most common type of dementia in older people after Alzheimer’s disease and VCI. 50% of patients with early-stage VCIND will develop dementia within five years [4].ranges between 50% and 98%. About 50% of VCI patients had cognitive impairment brought onby cerebral small vascular disease [6]. The diagnosis and categorization of VCI at this time are still based on clinical symptoms, subjective neuropsychological measures, and are not helpful for early clinical diagnosis or prevention [7]. The Chinese Medical Association Neurology Branch Dementia and Cognitive Disorders Group presented a consensus for the diagnosis of non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment using VCIND in 2011 [8]. It also placed a focus on neuroimaging. The examination is a crucial tool for locating and diagnosing VCIND. To a certain extent, early identification, early diagnosis, and early intervention of VCI become achievable.The prognosis of VCI patients will be significantly improved by early identification and treatment. Abnormal changes in tissue function typically occur before structural alterations in cognitive impairment. Before major structural changes in Brain tissue imaging may have revealed functional problems. Although structural imaging parameters clearly lag behind neuroimaging parameters in the assessment of cerebrovascular disorders in individuals with VCI, VCI diagnosis. Routine tests like CT and MRI routine sequences (T1, T2, DWI and FLAIR sequences) only offer a limited amount of information about probable white matter-transmitted bundles and are not very useful for clinical diagnosis. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is an imaging technique that makes use of the water molecule’s diffusion motion anisotropy to detect the exchange of water molecules between various components in the pathological state of living tissue and to sensitively reflect structural changes in white matter fibres in the brain [9]. There are currently few studies on the relationship between the severity of the disease in DTI imaging and the early diagnosis of VCI.

ConclusionAs a result, our findings suggested that there was selective fine structure damage in white matter in LA patients. These changes were associated with a variety of cognitive impairments in LA, which further reflected the degree of decline in cognitive function. FAF decreased and ADC increased in multiple brain white matter normal areas in LA patients. The shortcomings of traditional MRI can be more effectively made up for by DTI, which also offers more precise signs of white matter injury. Our understanding of LA white matter lesions will be enhanced by the use of neuropsychological testing in conjunction with DTI research techniques, which will also allow us to track dynamic changes as the disease progresses.a better knowledge of how white matter injuries affect patients with LA’s cognitive performance. A theoretical foundation for early clinical diagnosis and early intervention is provided by the link between damage. We should also be aware of the drawbacks of DTI imaging, including the partial volume effect brought on by too low a resolution, turbulent effects brought on by diffused gradient pulses, and the absence of a gold standard for fibre bundle tracing at the moment. These issues will eventually be resolved as MRI hardware and software continue to progress.

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Yifeng Du. Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China, World Neurosurgery Research 2024.

Journal Info

  • Journal Name: World Neurosurgery Research
  • Impact Factor: 2.0**
  • ISSN: 2995-6579
  • DOI: 10.52338/Wnsr
  • Short Name: Wnsr
  • Acceptance rate: 55%
  • Volume: (2024)
  • Submission to acceptance: 25 days
  • Acceptance to publication: 10 days


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